Basal cell carcinoma is a neoplasm from the basal layer of the skin epithelium, one of the types of skin cancer. It develops from atypical basal cells of the epidermis and follicular epithelium. In terms of malignancy, it occupies an intermediate position between benign and malignant tumors.
The main causes of basal cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to the sun, exposure to high temperatures and ionizing radiation, and exposure to carcinogenic substances. It is most common in people over fifty years old, but in very rare cases it can appear in children and adolescents. It occurs with the same frequency in men and women. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on open skin, usually on the face, neck, and scalp. The nasolabial folds, wings of the nose, upper lip, inner and outer corners of the eyes are most often affected.
The most common nodular form of basal cell carcinoma, from which all other forms are formed. The tumor is often accompanied by the formation of erosions and ulcers. Does not metastasize.
In the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, its prognosis is favorable. 90% of cases of basal cell carcinoma can be completely cured, and in the case of local forms, almost 100%. In the case of advanced ulcerative forms, it is possible for a basal cell carcinoma to grow into the bones of the skull, which significantly worsens the prognosis. Skin and cartilage defects are replaced with skin plastic after tumor removal. Fast and effective methods of treatment are cryodestruction and surgical removal of the tumor. As an alternative method, however expensive, you can use specially developed local drugs that have a cytostatic, immunosuppressive, antitumor effect.