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To answer these questions, it is necessary to make a correct diagnosis, which requires 3 things: a dermatoscope, a biopsy, and most importantly, a qualified dermatologist.


Benign neoplasms of the skin include:

  • Adenoma is a tumor that develops from sebaceous (adenoma sebaceum) and sweat glands (syringoma). It looks like nodules the size of a pin head. When the sebaceous gland is affected, the color is yellowish or yellowish-red; when the sweat gland is affected - bluish-red. Rashes are isolated; when the sebaceous glands are affected, they can be grouped.
  • Xanthoma (xanthoma) is a benign tumor of connective tissue fibers in which cholesterol compounds are deposited. It looks like a flat yellowish papule without signs of inflammation. It can occur on any part of the skin.
  • Xanthelasma is a type of xanthoma with a predominant arrangement of flat, oblong yellow plaques on the skin of the eyelids.
  • Fibroma is a tumor of connective tissue. There can be a soft fibroma - a body-colored nodule on a short or long stalk, the size of a cherry stone; solid fibroma is a dense hemispherical nodule on a broad base. If such a nodule sprouts vessels, it is called an angiofibroma.
  • Papilloma is an epidermal growth on the leg. It occurs often, the typical localization is the lateral surfaces of the neck, axillary pits, inguinal folds. The cause is the skin papilloma virus.
  • Milium is a retention cyst of sebaceous hair follicles, formed as a result of blockage of the excretory ducts of small sebaceous glands located in the surface layers of the skin. It appears in the form of white "balls" with a diameter of up to 1 mm. There are no signs of inflammation. Easily removed by manual cleaning.
  • Atheroma is a cyst of large sebaceous glands that develops when the excretory ducts are blocked. A thick-walled capsule develops around the gland, which holds sebum, which continues to form. It can reach the size of a walnut.
  • Lipoma is a benign tumor of adipose tissue of a soft consistency, which does not have such clear contours as atheroma. It can reach larger sizes than atheroma.
  • Moles (nevus)
  • Moles (birthmarks, nevi) are present in 99% of people. These are hereditary or congenital malformations of the neuroectoderm. A nevus can be congenital or appear at any age.
  • Anemic nevus: single or multiple anemic (pale) spots of various sizes with clear contours, sometimes resembling a geographical map, telangiectasias may appear on the surface. It is not subject to treatment.
  • Spot-pigmented: smooth spots of brown or black color, round, oval, striped, linear, irregularly shaped, of various sizes (up to 20 cm or more).
  • Lenticular: small (1-6 mm), flat, sometimes slightly raised, convex or infiltrated, different shape, color — from brown to black.
  • Discoid: spots or plaques with a diameter of 2-5 cm or more, the color is deep brown or black, the contours are irregular, there is a tendency for peripheral growth.
  • Pigmented mollusciform: hemispherical, rises above the skin level, dark brown or black, around - a groove, the surface is hilly, resembles a blackberry, warty or papillomatous-keratotic growths may occur.
  • Pigment giant: when a child is born, there are already symmetrical lesions of significant areas in the form of "spilled water", "animal skin", "shirt", "underpants" and other configurations. Their contours are clear, the color is brown with various shades or black, the surface is warty, vegetative or in the form of tumor-like growths, small nevi are around.
  • Pigmented-hairy: on the surface of the nevi there is an increased growth of downy hair.
  • Blue nevus: single, round, hemispherical elements with a diameter of 3-20 mm, dense, smooth, shiny, with clear contours, black or gray with a blue tint.
  • Setton's nevus (perinevus vitiligo): single or multiple pigmented nevi with an areola of depigmentation around them. There is no hyperpigmented border on the border with healthy skin, spontaneous regression is possible.
  • Warty-hyperkeratotic nevus: it can be congenital or appear at 1-4 years of age, sometimes it can increase as the child grows. At the same time, papillomatous and verrucous growths increase. The shape and distribution are variable, the surface is dry, dense, papillomatous-verrucous or keratotic growths.
  • There are unsystematized verrucous-hyperkeratotic nevi (single or grouped papillomatous-verrucous growths of gray, brown or black color, which resemble cauliflower of various shapes), systematized verrucous-hyperkeratotic nevi in ​​the form of systemically placed stripes, zonal or unilateral lines, or other shapes.
  • Fibromatous nevi: these are benign tumors in the form of angiofibromas, fibromatous and villous nevi.
  • Angiofibroma near the nail ridges: round, oval or oblong growths, pink, dense, prone to bleeding under the influence of trauma.
  • Villous nevus: a villous tumor of a soft consistency or hanging on a stalk in the neck, eyelids, under the armpits.
  • Fibromatous nevus: a tumor of a dense consistency with a diameter of 1 to 2 cm, smooth, shiny, pink or the color of normal skin in the lumbar or sacral region.
  • Nevus comedone: unilateral grouped elements, sometimes in the form of a band or islands, resembling large black comedones. Between them, the skin is normal or pigmented, thickened with an uneven wrinkled surface, individual scars and follicular cysts. The foci have an acne-like appearance.
  • Lewandowski's elastic nevus: small (1-5 mm), flattened, pinkish-yellow or brown papules, the central part of which is raised or retracted, with a hair in the center, are grouped or placed in the form of bands. The contours of plaques are unclear, blurred. Sometimes their surface has the appearance of a grid, tiles, keloid or scleroderma.
  • Nevus elastic tumor-like disseminated: elements of the rash with a diameter of 3-10 mm, round, slightly raised above the skin level, white-yellow or pink, dense, prone to fusion and the formation of plaques up to several centimeters in diameter.
  • Benign tumors of the skin
  • Papilloma (benign squamous keratosis, keratotic papilloma): solitary or multiple wart-like formations with a broad base, rising above the skin level or on the leg in the form of a mobile nodule, gray or dark brown in color, from 0.30.5 to 1 cm or more in diameter , round or irregular contours, the surface may be villous or covered with horny masses. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination.
  • Seborrheic keratosis (seborrheic wart, seborrheic keratoma, senile wart): at first a yellow or brown spot, later it increases to 4-6 cm or more, the surface is covered with oily crusts, rises above the skin level, the surface is sebaceous with cracks. The crusts can be 1-2 cm thick. The tumor is yellow-brown, dark brown, black. More often, foci are multiple in the back area, although they can occur in any area. They get sick mostly in old age.
  • Senile keratoma (senile keratosis, senile keratopapilloma): in old age, single or multiple limited areas of hyperkeratosis appear on open areas (face, neck, upper limbs), and when removed, it grows again. Over time, the focus becomes dense, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
  • Cutaneous horn: initially limited hyperkeratosis, later grows in length without changing the diameter. The formed tumor is a cone-shaped horny mass of different lengths, dense, the skin around it is not changed, it can turn into cancer.
  • Keratoacanthoma: a single tumor not connected to the underlying tissues, round or oval, the color of normal skin or gray-pink, dense consistency, in the center - a space filled with dense horny masses, which sometimes rise above the level of the tumor, its diameter is 10-20 mm, rarely gigantic. There are 3 periods of development: – growth period (3-4 weeks), especially rapid growth in the first 8-10 days; – stabilization stage — 2-3 weeks; – stage of regression: the keratoacanthoma becomes flat, the corneous masses recede.
  • Syringoma (malformation of the sweat glands): symmetrical multiple nodules, round, 1-5 mm in diameter, yellow-brown, dense, rising above the skin level, localized periorbitally, on the eyelids, neck, chest, genitals, lateral surfaces of the body, more often sick women.
  • Trichoepithelioma can be solitary or multiple. It is most often localized on the face. Tumors have the appearance of papillomatous or fibropapillomatous outgrowths, dense, pink or the color of normal skin, on the surface there are dilated capillaries, growth is slow. Multiple cases in 50-75% have a family character, the first elements appear in childhood, the number increases in the puberty period: multiple dense nodules rise above the skin level, with a diameter of 5-8 mm, the color of normal skin, more often on the face, can merge into conglomerates.
  • Fibroma can be hard or soft. Solid is a dense tumor of the color of normal skin or a faint pink color, has limited mobility, the surface is smooth, rarely there is slight hyperkeratosis on the surface, it is located on a broad base, rarely on a leg. Soft - localized more often on the neck, chest, back and in the axillary folds, single or multiple.
  • Dermatofibroma is a single or multiple round tumor located deep in the skin. In some cases, it seems to be drawn into the skin, in others, it protrudes in the form of a hemisphere, with a diameter of 2-3 mm to 1.5 cm, dense, dark brown.
  • Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor. Capillary: limited spots of deep pink, crimson or bluish color. Its variety is a stellate hemangioma: in the center is a cherry-colored dot, from which telangiectasias radiate radially (like a spider). Arterial: a limited spot of deep pink color, located deep in the skin, may take on a branched appearance. Arteriovenous: large, diameter up to 5-10 cm, tumors, oval or irregular contours, rising above the surface of the skin, pink or bluish in color. In case of injury, bleeding is possible. Cavernous hemangioma develops in newborns and increases in size. A tumor with a lobular structure, protruding above the surface of the skin, stagnant red or bluish in color.
  • Lymphangioma is a benign tumor of lymphatic vessels. Capillary (simple): a compacted spot, the skin in the fold is not removed. Cystic: grouped vesicle-like transparent elements on a compacted background, which are formed from birth on the face, neck, axillary areas. Cavernous: large multiple tumors on a dense basis, possible diffuse damage to the lower extremities.
The information in the article is provided for informational purposes and is not intended as a guide for self-diagnosis and treatment.
If you experience symptoms of an illness, please consult a doctor.